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Consultar: Programa de Ps-Graduao em Zootecnia

Incio > Dissertaes e Teses > Cincias Agrrias > Zootecnia > Programa de Ps-Graduao em Zootecnia

Ttulo [PT]: Licopeno na dieta de sunos na fase de terminao
Autor(es): Marcelise Regina Fachinello
Palavras-chave [PT]:

Sunos. Qualidade da carne. Nutrio animal. Antioxidante. Oxidao.Radicais livres. Imunidade. Carne suna. Brasil.
Palavras-chave [EN]:
Antioxidant. Pork meat. Oxidation. Free radicals. Immunity. Brazil.
rea de concentrao: Produo Animal
Titulao: Doutor em Zootecnia
Banca:
Paulo Csar Pozza [Orientador] - UEM
Nelson Luis Mello Fernandes - UFP
Grasiele Scaramal Madrona - UEM
Tatiana Carlesso dos Santos - USP
Leandro Dalcin Castilha - UEM
Resumo:
Resumo: A carne suna um alimento ricos em protenas e lipdios que so altamente susceptveis oxidao, o que pode comprometer suas caractersticas nutricionais e sensoriais. Os recentes avanos na pesquisa apontam uma alternativa de atenuar estes efeitos indesejveis com a utilizao de antioxidantes dietticos. Dentre os antioxidantes naturais, o licopeno conhecido por proteger as clulas contra danos causados por espcies reativas de oxignio e impede a peroxidao lipdica, alm de exercer aes sobre os componentes lipdicos do sangue e o sistema imune. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar nveis de suplementao de licopeno para sunos machos castrados e fmeas, dos 75 aos 100 kg, sobre o desempenho, caractersticas quantitativas da carcaa, qualidade da carne, parmetros bioqumicos no plasma, expresso gnica de enzimas antioxidantes e respostas imunitrias. Foram utlizados 80 sunos, sendo 40 machos castrados e 40 fmeas, com peso mdio inicial de 75,04 1,6 kg, distribudos em um esquema fatorial 2 x 5, sendo dois sexos (machos e fmeas) e cinco nveis de licopeno (0; 12,5; 25,0; 37,5 e 50,0 mg/kg de rao). Adicionalmente foram includos ao modelo o efeito do perodo de armazenamento da carne (0, 24, 48 e 72 horas) para as anlises do radical DPPH e TBARS do msculo longissimus lumborum e, para a determinao de IgG, foram includos os perodos de coleta (0, 12 e 24 dias). Os dados foram submetidos anlise de varincia a 5% utilizando o programa computacional SAS. No foram observadas interaes (P>0,05) entre o sexo e os nveis de licopeno para as variveis de desempenho. O sexo influenciou o consumo dirio de rao (P=0,001) e a converso alimentar (P=0,001), sendo inferior para as fmeas. O desdobramento da interao entre os nveis de licopeno e o sexo, revelou uma reduo linear na expresso gnica das enzimas superxido dismutase (SOD) (P=0,018) e catalase (P=0,001), no fgado, para as fmeas sunas. As fmeas apresentaram menor expresso gnica da SOD (P=0,001) com 50,0 mg de suplementao de licopeno e para a catalase (P=0,001) e glutattiona peroxidase (P=0,001), nos nveis de 0; 12,5 e 50,0 mg de licopeno, em relao aos machos castrados. A suplementao de licopeno na dieta proporcionou melhorias no perfl lipdico do plasma sanguneo, pois medida que os nveis de suplementao diettica de licopeno aumentaram, o colesterol total (P=0,001), LDL (P=0,001) e a relao LDL:HDL (P=0,001) reduziram, e aumentaram os nveis de HDL (P=0,001). As fmeas apresentaram maiores concentraes plasmticas de ureia (P=0,001) e triglicerdeos (P=0,001) e menores concentraes de HDL (P=0,001), LDL (P=0,001), alm de menor relao LDL:HDL (P=0,001) em relao aos machos castrados. Houve diferena quanto ao sexo para as caractersticas quantitativas da carcaa, em que os machos castrados apresentaram maior rendimento da carcaa quente (P=0,049), rendimento da carcaa refrigerada (P=0,023), espessura de toucinho (P=0,001) e gordura abdominal (P=0,001) e as fmeas um maior rendimento de carne magra (P=0,001). A perda de lquido no descongelamento reduziu linearmente (P=0,024) em funo dos nveis de licopeno, reduzindo em at 17,46% em relao ao tratamento sem licopeno. Os machos apresentaram maiores intensidades de colorao para as variveis a* (P=0,001) e b* (P=0,045), tendo tendncia ao vermelho e amarelo. Foi observada interao (P=0,006) entre os perodos de armazenamento e os nveis de licopeno na dieta para a oxidao lipdica do msculo longissimus lumborum. O desdobramento revelou em uma reduo da oxidao lipdica medida que aumentou-se a suplementao de licopeno na dieta, em todos os perodos avaliados (0, 24, 48 e 72 horas). Obteve-se um aumento linear da oxidao lipdica com o aumento dos dias de armazenamento, para todos os nveis de licopeno avaliados (0; 12,5; 25,0; 37,5 e 50,0 mg/kg de rao). No foram observadas interaes (P>0,05) para a inibio do radical DPPH na carne, no entanto, o radical DPPH foi influenciado pelo perodo de armazenamento e pelos nveis de suplementao de licopeno na dieta. A inibio do radical DPPH na carne foi reduzida at as 72 h. Com relao ao nvel de suplementao de licopeno na dieta, houve um aumento (P=0,001) na captura do radical DPPH por antioxidantes na carne. A oxidao lipdica do fgado foi reduzida pela suplementao de licopeno na dieta de sunos, em que ao nvel de 34,47 mg de licopeno/kg de rao houve a menor oxidao. A captura do radical DPPH por antioxidantes no fgado foi aumentada (P=0,001), resultando em um aumento do poder antioxidante exercido pelo licopeno no fgado, devido ao aumento da suplementao diettica de licopeno. As fmeas apresentaram menor concentrao de malonaldedo (P=0,001) e maior captura do radical DPPH (P=0,001) por antioxidantes, em relao aos machos castrados. O aumento da incluso do licopeno na dieta de sunos aumentou a albumina no plasma (P=0,012). medida que os nveis de licopeno aumentaram na dieta, a concentrao de linfcitos aumentou (P=0,045) de forma linear. A concentrao de neutrfilos e a relao neutrfilos:linfcitos foram influenciadas (P<0,05) pelos nveis de licopeno na dieta, resultando em uma menor concentrao de neutrfilos ao nvel de 17,49 mg licopeno/kg e 16,46 mg de licopeno para a menor relao neutrfilos:linfcitos. Os eosinfilos tambm foram influenciados (P=0,050) pela suplementao do licopeno na dieta, em que o nvel de 22,69 mg de licopeno/kg de rao resultou em uma maior resposta dos eosinfilos ao licopeno diettico. Houve interao (P=0,011) entre os perodos de coleta e os nveis de licopeno para a produo de IgG anti-BSA. O desdobramento revelou uma maior produo de IgG Anti-BSA at a suplementao de 20,06 mg de licopeno/kg de rao aos 24 dias de coleta e a produo de IgG Anti-BSA aumentou ao longo dos dias de avaliao, em todos os nveis de suplementao de licopeno. A suplementao de licopeno na dieta de sunos machos e fmeas, dos 75 aos 100 kg, um potente modulador do perfil lipdico, reduzindo os nveis de colesterol total e lipoprotenas de baixa densidade e aumentando as lipoprotenas de alta densidade, reduzindo tambm a expresso gnica das enzimas superxido dismutase e catalase no fgado de fmeas sunas. Alm disso, reduziu a perda de lquido no descongelamento e foi efetivo na proteo contra oxidao do msculo longissimus lumborum e fgado, assim como alterou as respostas imunes. Os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a suplementao de 50,0 mg de licopeno/kg de rao para a qualidade da carne, fgado, expresso gnica e perfl lipdico e 20,06 mg de licopeno/kg de rao apresentou a melhor resposta imune.

Abstract: Meat pork is a food rich in proteins and lipids that are highly susceptible to oxidation, which can compromise your nutritional and sensory characteristics. The recent advances in research point to an alternative to attenuate these undesirable effects with the use of dietary antioxidants. Among the natural antioxidants, lycopene is known to protect cells against damage caused by reactive oxygen species and prevents lipid peroxidation, in addition to exerting actions on the lipid components of the blood and the immune system. The objective of this work was to evaluate the levels of lycopene supplementation for barrows and gilts pigs, from 75 to 100 kg, on performance, carcass quantitative characteristics, meat quality, plasma biochemical parameters, gene expression of antioxidant enzymes and Immune responses. Eighty pigs were used, 40 barrows and 40 gilts, with a means initial weight of 75.04 1.6 kg. In a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, two sexes (male and female) and five levels of lycopene (0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0 mg/kg of diet) were additionally included in the model, the effect of the meat storage period (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours) for analyzes of the radical DPPH and TBARS of the longissimus lumborum muscle and, for the determination of IgG, the collection periods (0, 12 and 24 days). Data were submitted to analysis of variance at 5%, using the SAS computer program. No interactions (P>0.05) were observed between sex and levels lycopene to the performance variables. Sex influenced daily feed intake (P=0.001) and feed:gain ratio (P=0.001), being lower for gilts. The unfolding of the interaction between levels of lycopene and sex revealed a linear reduction in the gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes (P=0.018) and catalase (P=0.001) in the liver for the gilts pigs. Gilts showed lower SOD gene expression (P=0.001) with 50.0 mg of lycopene supplementation and for catalase (P=0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (P=0.001) at levels of 0; 12.5 and 50.0mg of lycopene, in relation to barrows. Lipoprotein supplementation in the diet provided improvements in the lipid profile of the blood plasma, as the levels of dietary supplementation of lycopene increased, total cholesterol (P=0.001), LDL (P=0.001) and LDL:HDL ratio (P=0.001) reduced, and increased levels of HDL (P=0.001). Gilts presented higher plasma concentrations of urea (P=0.001) and triglycerides (P=0.001) and lower concentrations of HDL (P=0.001), LDL (P=0.001) and besides lower LDL:HDL ratio (P=0.001) in to relation barrows. There was a difference in sex for the quantitative characteristics of the carcass, in which the barrows had higher hot carcass yield (P=0.049), cold carcass yield (P=0.023), backfat thickness (P=0.001) and abdominal fat (P=0.001) higher Lean meat yield (P=0.001). Thawing loss reduced linearly (P=0.024) as a function levels of lycopene, reducing by up to 17.46% in relation to treatment without lycopene. The barrows had higher staining intensities for the variables a* (P=0.001) and b* (P=0.045), having a tendency to red and yellow. Interaction (P=0.006) was observed between storage periods and levels of lycopene in the diet for the longissimus lumborum muscle. Interaction (P=0.006) was observed between storage periods and levels of lycopene in the diet for lipid oxidation of the longissimus lumborum muscle. The unfolding revealed in a reduction of lipid oxidation as the dietary lycopene supplementation was increased in all evaluated periods (0, 24, 48 and 72 hours). Linear increase of the lipid oxidation was obtained with the increase the days of storage days for all lycopene levels evaluated (0, 12.5, 25.0, 37.5 and 50.0 mg/kg of diet). No interactions (P>0.05) were observed for the inhibition of the DPPH radical in the meat, however, the DPPH radical was influenced by the storage period and levels of lycopene supplementation in the diet. Inhibition of the DPPH radical in meat was reduced up until at 72h. Regarding the level of lycopene supplementation in the diet, there was an increase (P=0.001) in the capture of the DPPH radical by antioxidants in the meat. The lipid oxidation of the liver was reduced by the supplementation of lycopene in the diet of pigs, where at the level of 34.47 mg of lycopene/kg of diet, there was the lowest oxidation. The capture of the DPPH radical by antioxidants in the liver was increased (P=0.001), resulting in an increase of the antioxidant power exerted by the lycopene in the liver, due to the increase of the dietary supplementation of lycopene. The gilts showed lower concentration of malonaldehyde (P=0.001) and higher DPPH (P=0.001) radical capture by antioxidants, compared to barrows. The increase in the inclusion of lycopene in the diet of pigs increased (P = 0.012) the albumin in the plasma. As levels of lycopene increased in the diet, the lymphocyte concentration increased (P=0.045) in linear fashion. The neutrophil concentration and the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio were influenced (P<0.05) by the levels of lycopene in the diet, resulting in a lower concentration of neutrophils of level of lycopene 17.49 mg/kg and 16.46 mg of lycopene/kg of diet to the lowest the neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio. The eosinophils were also influenced (P=0.050) by the supplementation of lycopene in the diet, in which level of 22.69 mg of lycopene/kg of diet resulted in a greater response of eusinophils to dietary lycopene. There was interaction (P=0.011) between the collection period and the lycopene levels for the anti-BSA IgG production. The unfolding showed a higher production of anti-BSA IgG until the supplementation of 20.06 mg of lycopene/kg of diet at 24 days of collection and the production of Anti-BSA IgG increased throughout the evaluation days at all levels of lycopene supplementation. Supplementation of lycopene in barrows and gilts pigs, from 75 to 100 kg, is a potent lipid profile modulator, reducing levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein and increasing high density lipoprotein, reducing also the gene expression of the superoxide dismutase and catalase enzymes in the liver of pig gilts. In addition, it reduced the thawing loss and was effective in the protection against oxidation of the longissimus lumborum muscle and liver, as well as altered the immune responses. The best results were obtained with the supplementation of 50.0 mg of lycopene/kg of diet for meat quality, liver, gene expression and lipid profile, and 20.06 mg of lycopene/kg of diet presented the best immune response.
Data da defesa: 05/05/2017
Cdigo: vtls000226891
Informaes adicionais:
Idioma: mul
Data de Publicao: 2017
Local de Publicao: Maring, PR
Orientador: Prof. Dr. Paulo Cesar Pozza
Co-Orientador: Prof. Dr. Eliane Gasparino
Instituio: Universidade Estadual de Maring . Centro de Cincias Agrrias
Nvel: Tese (doutorado em zootecnia)
UEM: Programa de Ps-Graduao em Zootecnia

Responsavel: edson
Categoria: Aplicao
Formato: Documento PDF
Arquivo: tese licopeno 27 06 CD.pdf
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Criado: 16-11-2017 14:52
Atualizado: 16-11-2017 15:02
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